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APA Format and Style Guide

APA Style for Print Sources

Delta College Library - APA Style for Print Sources

The following information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 2009, 6th edition. This manual has a call number of  Ref. PN 147 .A5 2010 and can be found on the Reference shelves.

Here are some very basic rules to remember about citing books and periodicals:

  • Put a space between the initials.
  • Italicize the volume numbers of the periodical articles.
  • The issue number goes between parentheses.
  • When citing within the body of your paper (In-Text), cite the author and year if you are citing the entire work or paraphrasing.
  • When citing within the body of your paper (In-Text), include the author, year, and page number if you are citing a direct quote.

Book (unknown author)

The new government.  (1971). New York: Franklin Watts.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (The new government, 1971).  OR  (The new government, 1971,  p. 25).        

Book (with an Editor)

Berkow, J. A. (Ed.). (2009). The medical  manual. New York: Franklin Watts.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Berkow, 2009).  OR  (Berkow, 2009,  p. 45).

Book (one author)

Komisar, L. (1971). The new feminism. New York: Franklin Watts.
Examples of In-Text Citations: (Komisar, 1971).   OR  (Komisar, 1971,  p. 190). 

Book (two authors)

Strunk, W. Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style.  (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Examples of In-Text Citations (two authors): (Strunk & White, 1979).   OR  (Strunk & White, 1979,  p. 150).

Book (three, four, five authors)

Cave, Y. M., Ramirez, R., & Soo, T. (2002).  Determining quality leadership. New York: Schuster.

Examples of In-Text (three to five authors): First time, cite all authors, and second time, cite only the first author plus "et al." and then the year. If you cite a direct quote, include the page number, too.  (Cave,  Ramirez, & Soo,  2002,  p. 170). OR  (Cave et al., 2002,  p. 170).

                                                         Book (six and seven authors)

Kabat, J., Ewing, M., Wooden, A., Rock, T., Gruen, C., &  Hall, J. V. (2006). Transforming information

.  (4th ed.) Detroit: Gale.


Examples of In-Text (Six or more authors): (Kabat et al., 2006).  OR  (Kabat et al., 2006,  p. 25).

Book (eight or more authors)

Kabat, J., Ewing, M., Wooden, A., Rock, T., Gruen, C., & Hall, J. V., … Paul, J. (2009). Transforming
         information literacy
.  (5th ed.) Detroit: Gale.

According to the 2009 APA Publication Manual about eight or more authors for the Reference List: “When authors number eight or more, include first six authors’ names, then three ellipsis points, and add the last author’s name.

Example of In-Text for SIX OR MORE AUTHORS: (Kabat et al., 2009).  OR (Kabat et al., 2009,  p. 25).

Book (corporate author)  

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological   

, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (American Psychological Association,  2010).  OR  (American Psychological Association,  2010,  p. 5).

Book Chapter

Roll, W. P. (1976).  ESP and memory. In J. M. O. Wheatley & H. L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical

          dimensions of  parapsychology
(pp. 154-184). Springfield, Illinois: C.C. Thomas.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Roll, 1976).  OR  (Roll, 1976,  p. 155).

NOTE: The book is Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology and the title of the chapter within the book is “ESP and memory.”  The author of the chapter is Roll, and the editors of the book are Wheatley and Edge. 

Book Review        

Bird, M. (2002, August 26). Ecotourism or egotourism:  A Critic of “green” travel finds it as hazardous

          to ecosystems and cultures as conventional vacations. [Review of the book A Trip too far:

          Ecotourism, politics, and exploitation
]. Time International 160(9), 62.                                                   

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Bird, 2002). OR (Bird, 2002, p. 62).

Encyclopedia Article

Warren, S. A. (1977).  Mental retardation and environment. In International encyclopedia of psychiatry,

 psychology, psychoanalysis, and  neurology  (Vol. 7, pp. 202-207). New York: Aesculapius


Examples of In-Text Citations: (Warren, 1977).  OR  (Warren, 1977,  p. 204).


Compilations are books that will contain articles, or chapters, written by different authors.  Usually, an editor will find articles and compile them into one book. In this example, the article cited is an article by Rose with the title of “Modernism: The Case of Willa Cather.”   The person who included this article in his book is the editor H. Bloom and the article can be found on page 123 in the book “American fiction 1914 to 1945.”

Rose, P. (1987). Modernism: The Case of Willa Cather. In H. Bloom (Ed.), American fiction 1914 to

(pp, 123-197). New York: Chelsea House.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Rose, 1987).  OR  (Rose, 1987, p. 124).

Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterward in a Book

Renny, A. (2007). Foreword.  In Brown, J (Ed). How to cite resources. (pp. ix-x).  New York: Schuster.

Example of In-Text Citations: (Renny, pp. ix-x).

Please Note: Renny is the person who wrote the foreword.  Brown is the editor of the book titled How to cite resources. Renny’s foreword appears in Brown’s book How to cite resources. The foreword is on pages ix-x.

Dissertation (unpublished and published)

Rose, J. A., (2000). Home health care for older adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State,


Examples of In-Text Citations: (Rose, 2000).  OR  (Rose, 2000, p. 205).

Abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International:

Renny, T. (2002). The new demands on a global economy. (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2002). 

          Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Renny, 2002).  OR  (Renny, 2002, p. 170).

Entire Dssertation available from a Commercial or Library Database:

Renny, T. (2002). The new demands on a global economy. (Doctoral dissertation).  Available from ProQuest

          Dissertations and Theses database ( UMI No. 1234557).

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Renny, 2002).  OR  (Renny, 2002, p. 170).

Journal Article (one author)

Maki, R. H. (1982).  Why do categorization effects occur in comparative judgment tasks? Memory &

10(3), 264.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Maki, 1982).  OR  (Maki, 1982, p. 264).

Journal Article (two authors)

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1971). The control of short-term memory.  Scientific American,  

          225(2),  82-90.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (two authors) (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971).  OR  (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971,  p. 83).

Magazine Article (one author)

Henry, W. A., III (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

Examples of In-Text Citations: (Henry, 1990).  OR (Henry, 1990, p. 29).


Magazine Article (unknown author)

The blood business. (1972, September 11). Time, 97, 47-48.

Examples of In-Text Citations: ("The blood business,"  1972).  OR  (“The blood business,”  1972,  p. 47).

Newspaper Article (unknown author)

Amazing Amazon region. (1969, January 12).  New York Times, p. D11.

Examples of In-Text Citations: ("Amazing Amazon region,"  1969).  OR  (“Amazing Amazon region,” 1969,  p. D11).


Government Document / Government Printing Office report (GPO)

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness  (DHSS

          Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Example of In-Text Citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1990).  For subsequent citations, use: (NIMH, 1990).


Interview  (You may want to check with your instructor about this APA rule)

APA does not require that you cite personal communications (interviews and emails) in the reference list.  Instead give an in-text citation within the body of your paper. Here is an example:   Tim Jones (personal communication, August 25, 2007) mentioned that APA has changed the rules when it comes to citing interviews.

Another example of In-Text Citation:  T. Jones (personal communication, August 25, 2007).

Pamphlet or Brochure

Escher, M. C. (2009). Becoming a big brother [Brochure]. Chicago, IL: National Big Brother


Example of In-Text Citation: (Escher, 2009).

This is a partial guide and is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The complete handbook is available in the Delta College Library (Call Number (Reference section): PN 147 .A5 2010).